Morrisson Mark - Modern alchemy


Author : Morrisson Mark
Title : Modern alchemy Occultism and the emergence of atomic theory
Year : 2007

Link download : Morrisson_Mark_-_Modern_alchemy.zip

Introduction. Stories of the Birth of Modern Alchemy. For many in the twenty-first century, the word ‘‘alchemy’’ conjures up images of medieval zealots rummaging through ancient books and scrolls in dark hot basements, seeking the secrets of transmutation in the dim firelight of brick furnaces and archaic laboratory equipment with strange names—athanor, horn of Hermes, cucurbite. The occult wisdom forged by these alchemists was intended to bring them immense wealth, great longevity, and spiritual purification. In spite of Enlightenment attacks upon alchemy as unscientific superstition, or merely the foolish pursuit of the self-deluded, it is now clear that alchemy was a scientifically and spiritually serious pursuit from antiquity through the Middle Ages, with roots in Egyptian metallurgy, Aristotelian philosophy of matter and form, and Jewish, Arabic, early Christian, and Hermetic sources. Alchemy was not a monolithic practice, but virtually all versions of it involved destroying the nature of a ‘‘base’’ metal—lead or mercury, for instance—thus reducing it to a prima materia without the specific characteristics of any element. Then, the powder of the prized ‘‘Philosopher’s Stone’’ or some other process would instill a ‘‘nobler’’ essence into the substance, transmuting it into gold or silver. The physical processes of alchemy involved several stages in which the base metal would be altered through heating, distilling, and the addition of various chemicals (saltpeter, alcohol, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid, for example). These stages were often known by specific colors that would appear during their successful execution. An intricate and seemingly mysterious set of images and symbols emerged, too, in the Greek, Arabic, and medieval literatures of alchemy. These included the tail-eating serpent, Ouroboros, symbolizing the unity of the cosmos, and various images representing the stages of the ‘‘Great Work’’ of alchemy (e.g., the black raven for the nigredo stage or the white dove for the albedo). Alchemy moved in pharmacological directions as well, using the logic of the purification of matter to seek chemical cures for ailments—and even for aging, which would be vanquished by the fabled Elixir of Life. Just as alchemy represented the chemistry of the Middle Ages, figures such as Paracelsus (1493–1541) helped direct alchemical thinking toward the practice of medicine. By the eighteenth century, though, alchemy was under assault and largely dismissed by those supporting the rigorous scientific method and new ways of understanding matter that laid the groundwork for modern chemistry. Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century scientists pronounced alchemy’s methods of reasoning and experimentation nonscientific. But, perhaps most important, they rejected alchemy’s understanding of the nature of matter. Alchemy held that all the elements could be reduced to a prima materia, and then transmuted into other elements. But modern chemistry, as it emerged during the Enlightenment, came to the opposite view of the nature of matter. Culminating in John Dalton’s field-defining 1808 treatise, A New System of Chemical Philosophy, modern chemistry held that atoms were the smallest particles, both indivisible and unalterable. An atom of each element was a fundamental, distinct particle (Keller 1983, 9–10). The material basis for alchemy was thus seen as nothing more than a long-held intellectual mistake, now relegated to the realm of superstition and pseudoscience. ...

753 reads


You might also like

News

Updates are only available to donors. To make a donation please go to this page : Donate You will...

Continue reading

Brenier Flavien - Les juifs et le Talmud

Auteur : Brenier Flavien Ouvrage : Les juifs et le Talmud Morale et principes sociaux des juifs...

Continue reading

Leese Arnold - Sottise du Gentil Les Rothschild

Auteur : Leese Arnold Ouvrage : Sottise du Gentil Les Rothschild En complément : Le Bolchevisme est...

Continue reading

Leese Arnold - Meurtre rituel juif

Auteur : Leese Arnold Ouvrage : Meurtre rituel juif Année : 1938 Lien de téléchargement :...

Continue reading

Leese Arnold - La guerre de survie juive

Auteur : Leese Arnold Ouvrage : La guerre de survie juive Année : 1937 Lien de téléchargement :...

Continue reading

Leese Arnold - Hors des sentiers battus Les deux vies d'un vétérinaire anti-juif

Auteur : Leese Arnold Ouvrage : Hors des sentiers battus Les deux vies d'un vétérinaire anti-juif...

Continue reading

Firestone Reuven - Holy war in judaism

Author : Firestone Reuven Title : Holy war in judaism The fall and rise of a controversial idea...

Continue reading

Edgell William - Does the Earth rotate ? No !

Author : Edgell William (Edgell William) Title : Does the Earth rotate ? No ! Year : 1927 Link...

Continue reading

Cook Frederick Henry - The terrestrial plane

Author : Cook Frederick Henry Title : The terrestrial plane Year : 1908 Link download :...

Continue reading




Balder Ex-Libris
Review of books rare and missing


Balder Ex-Libris